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Jinzhou

Jinzhou, is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning Province, China. It is a geographically strategic city in the "Liaoxi Corridor", which connects the land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's Northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West Liaoning on the northwestern shore of the Bohai Sea. Jinzhou's jurisdiction is 10,301 km², 440 km² is rural. Its coastline is 97.7 km. Population: 3,000,000 of which 770,000 is urban.

History
Jinzhou is an ancient city with more than a thousand years of history. Originally known as Tuhe, it became part of the Yan in the Warring States period; the Qin unified six states and the majority of what is now Jinzhou became part of Liaodong township. It was part of Changli township in Youzhou in the Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms periods, but fell under the jurisdiction of Yingzhou during the Beiwei, Dongwei and Beiqi periods, before becoming part of Liucheng township and then Yan township during the Sui and Tang eras. During the Tang dynasty, it became the seat of the Andong township government.

The name 'Jinzhou' came into use in the Liao dynasty, when it belonged to Zhongjing prefecture. In the Jin dynasty, it belonged to Dongjing township and Beijing township. It belonged to Liaoyang Xingzhongshu ministry in the Yuan dynasty and to Liaodong township in the Ming dynasty, and was ruled by Tianfu during the Qing dynasty, when its name was changed from Jinzhou to Jinxian. During the Republican period, Jinzhou fell under the jurisdiction of Liaoning Province. After the establishment of the "New China", Liaoxi Province was founded and Jinzhou became the provincial capital. Jinzhou then came back under the jurisdiction of Liaoning Province in 1954, when Liaoxi and Liaodong provinces merged.

Geography and Geology
Jinzhou is located in a mid-latitude temperate zone with a monsoon climate, which experiences a relatively large variation in temperature over the course of a year. The annual average temperature is around 9°C and the annual average rainfall is between 540 and 640 mm. It experiences four distinct seasons, each with their own characteristics; its monsoon climate is pronounced and exhibits strong continentality. The geographic and natural climatic conditions of Jinzhou are conducive to the development of such industries as agriculture, forestry, livestock and marine produce.

Fossil-bearing rocks are exposed in the city's vicinity. A genus of Early Cretaceous birds has been named Jinzhouornis in honor of the locality, but it appears to be a junior synonym of Confuciusornis which was found in the same formation some years earlier.

Major Tourist Sites
"Liaoshen Campaign Memorial": The Liaoshen Campaign Memorial is a large museum that holds and displays over 16,000 pieces of equipment used during the campaign, including rifles, machine guns, mortars, cannons, and tanks. It also holds thousands of pictures and documents. The most famous location inside the museum is the Panoramic Picture Hall, which reproduces on a rotating circular screen, the complete Battle of Jinzhou.

"Yiwulü Mountain": Located in the west of Beizhen City of Jinzhou, it is one of the 3 famous mountains in Northeast China. Wanghai Mountain is the main peak, with a height of 867 meters above the sea level. Main tourist spots are Beizhen Temple, Shenshui Bridge, Fish Pool, Guanyin Pavilion, Sijiao Pavilion, Kuangguang Pavilion, Lotus Stone, Cloud Pass, Wanghai Temple, etc.

"Mount Bijia": This is an interesting island in the Bohai Sea south of Jinzhou's coastline. During most time of the day, Mt. Bijiashan can only be accessed by boat. But when the sea recedes, a natural zigzagging cobblestone bridge will emerge from the Bohai Sea and connect Mt. Bijiashan to the mainland. People can walk to Mt. Bijianshan from the seafront on foot. Local people named this natural wonder "Tian Qiao", which means sky bridge. On the top of Mt. Bijiashan, there is a tall stone pavilion. It looks like a gigantic pen resting on a pen holder. Hence the name "Bijianshan", meaning the "Pen Holder Mountain".

Photograph of Mount Bijia at high tide."Guangji Pagoda": The Guangji Pagoda is located in the southeast corner of the city. The 72 metre tower is beautiful Liao style architecture, with thirteen levels in an octagonal shape. A quiet temple beneath completes the ancient Chinese setting. Visitors will see locals gather for early morning rituals, exercise and various other activities. There is no fee for admission to the temple grounds.

Culture
One of the non-fiction best selling novels during the 1990s, "Wild Swans:Three Daughters of China", provides some detailed descriptions of Jinzhou before and after the "1949 Liberation of China".

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