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Manzhouli

Manzhouli is a sub-prefecture-level city located in Hulunbuir prefecture-level city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. It is the PRC's busiest land port of entry. It has an area of 696.3 square kilometers and a population of more than 230,000.

Geography
Manzhouli is located in the western part of the Hulunbuir prefecture-level city. To the east, south and west it borders New Barghu Left Banner and New Barghu Right Banner, also in Hulunbuir, and Russia to the north, with which it shares a border 54 km long. The Russian townlet of Zabaykalsk is situated immediately north of Abagaitu Islet and Manzhouli.

Manzhouli is located on the Hulunbuir grasslands. Lake Hulun to its immediate south is the PRC's fifth largest freshwater lake with an area of 2,600 square km and an average depth of just 5 meters.

History
In ancient times the area was inhabited by many tribes that lived in Manchuria, including the Donghu, the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Khitan, the Jurchen, and the Mongols. From the early Qing Dynasty onwards the Argun River, which originates in this area, became the border between the Manchu Empire and Russia.

In 1901, the China Far East Railway was completed in accordance with the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty of 1896, linking Siberia, Manchuria, and the Russian Far East. A settlement then formed around Manchzhuriya Station, the first stop within Manchuria for Russians. It was the beginning of the modern city of Manzhouli and the name of Manzhouli came from Russian Manchzhuriya (Маньчжурия i.e. Manchuria).

In 1905, Manzhouli was designated a trading center in the Sino-Japanese Treaty of 1905, greatly boosting Manzhouli's growth. In 1908 the Manzhouli customs was set up. Under the Republic of China, Manzhouli came under the jurisdiction of the province of Hsingan. In 1927, Manzhouli was designated as a city. Although with Hsingan and surrounding areas, Manzhouli came under Japanese control in 1931, and was part of the Empire of Manchukuo from 1932-1945. It became part of Inner Mongolia under the People's Republic of China from 1946. In 1992, Manzhouli became one of the first land border cities opened up by the People's Republic of China.

Culture
Manzhouli Ice & Snow Festival takes place every winter from some time in February to early March. This is a smaller version of Harbin's Ice and Snow Festivals.

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