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Guangxi

Guangxi borders Viet Nam in the southwest and Guangdong Province in Southeast. Guangxi covers an area of 230,000 square kilometers, and takes Nanning as its capital city. Its abbreviation  is Gui, which comes from the city of Guilin, the former capital, center of much of Guangxi's culture, politics, and history, and currently a major city in the autonomous region. Guangxi is well known for its typical karst formation, with typical representations in Guilin they are: 

Li RiverReed Flute Cave - Ling Canal - Elephant Trunk Hill - Residence of Prince Jingjiang - Seven Star Park - Daxu Old Town in Guilin - Fubo Hill - Yuzi Paradise - Diecai Hill - Two Rivers and Four Lakes - Longji Rice Terraces - White Water Raft Ride in Ziyuan - Xingping - Cormorant Fishing Fun in Yangshuo and Guilin - Ping'an Zhuang Village - Yao People's Villages - Yinshui Dong Village - Longsheng Hot Springs - Yangshuo  - Rock Climbing in Yangshuo - Yangshuo Bike Riding - Kayaking on the Li River Yangshuo - The Mud Bath in Yangshuo - Trekking in Yangshuo - Yangshuo Hot Air Ballooning - Learn Martial Arts - Bamboo Rafting In Yangshuo - Swimming in Yangshuo - Caving in Yangshuo - Yangshuo Chinese Cooking Course - Impression Liu Sanjie

Ancestor in Guangxi have left behind lots of historic sites and cultural relics such as Huashan Rock Paintings created by the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality (a total population of more than 17 million),the 34-kilometer-long Xing'an ancient Ling Canal built in the period 219 to 214 BC, one of the most ancient irrigation projects in the world and is as famous as the Great Wall. Other prime attractions include festivals, wedding ceremonies, cuisine, ethnic customs, the charming hills and waters of Guilin with the fame of scenery unparallel in China, the Beibu Bay well known for soft wave, fine sand and subtropical charms, making Guagnxi an enchanting tourist attraction.

Ethnic minorities native to Guangxi, such as the Zhuang and Dong, are also interesting for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering with Guizhou, is home to the Longsheng Rice Terraces, said to be some of the steepest in the world. Nearby Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County.

Geography and Climate
Map of GuangxiGuangxi is a mountainous region. The Nanling Mountains are found in the northeast border, with the Yuecheng Mountains and Haiyang Mountains being its shorter branching ridges. Nearer to the center of the region are the Dayao Mountains and the Daming Mountains. To the north there are the Duyao Mountains and the Fenghuang Mountains, while on the southeast border there are the Yunkai Mountains. The highest point is Mount Mao'er located in the Yuecheng Mountains, at 2141 m.

Many rivers cut valleys through the mountains. Most of these rivers form the tributary basin of the West River. Guangxi has a short coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin. Important seaports include Beihai, Qinzhou and Fangchenggang.

Guangxi has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long and hot. Average annual temperature is 17 to 23°C, while average annual precipitation is 1250 to 1750 mm.

History
Part of the region officially became part of China in 214 BC, when the army of the Qin Dynasty claimed most of southern China. The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the Song Dynasty, which administered the area as a circuit called the Guangnanxi Circuit (literally "Guang-South West Circuit"). During the late Mongol Yuan Dynasty the name was revived again to name a province in the region, but it was shortened to "Guangxi", or "Guang-West". For the next six centuries, Guangxi was a province of China, until its conversion into an autonomous region by the People's Republic of China because of its large minority population.

During the late Qing Dynasty, Guangxi was the site of the Jintian Uprising, which occurred in what is now Guiping county in eastern Guangxi on January 11, 1851. On March 23, 1885, Zhennan Pass (now Youyi Pass) on the border with Vietnam was also the site of the Battle of Bang Bo during the Sino-French War. During the battle, a French incursion was routed by Chinese forces under Feng Zicai, an event that has been exalted by subsequent Chinese nationalism.

After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi Clique. Led by Lu Jung-t'ing and others, the clique was able to take control of neighbouring Hunan and Guangdong provinces as well. The Old Guangxi Clique crumbled in the early 1920s, to be replaced by the New Guangxi Clique, led by Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi. Guangxi is also noted for the Baise Uprising, a communist uprising led by Deng Xiaoping in 1929. Communist bases were set up, but eventually destroyed by Kuomintang forces.

In 1944, near the end of World War II, Japan invaded Guangxi as part of Operation Ichigo (also known as the Henan-Hunan-Guangxi Campaign, in an attempt to seize the Hunan-Guangxi railway line and open a land link to French Indochina. The operation succeeded and most major cities in Guangxi came under Japanese occupation.

Being in the far south, Guangxi was not taken by communist forces until after the People's Republic was formed; it joined in December 1949, two months after the People's Republic's foundation. In 1958, Guangxi was converted into an autonomous region for the Zhuang, by recommendation of Premier Zhou Enlai. This decision was made because the Zhuang were the biggest minority group in China, and were mostly concentrated in Guangxi.

For most of its history, Guangxi was landlocked. In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, then restored in 1965.

While some development of heavy industry occurred in the province in the 1960s and 1970s, it remained largely a tourist destination and home of scenery which brought people from all over the world. Even the economic growth in China in the 1990s seemed to leave Guangxi behind. However in recent years there has been a growing amount of industrialization, and concentration on cash crops. Per capita GDP has begun rising more rapidly, as industries in Guangdong seek a way to locate production to lower wage areas.

Guangxi celebrated its 50th anniversary as an Autonomous Region on December 11th, 2008.

Culture
"Guangxi" and neighbouring Guangdong literally mean "Guang West" and "Guang East". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Two Guangs". Its culture and language are reflected in this. Though now associated with the Zhuang ethnic minority, Guangxi's culture traditionally has had a close connection with the Cantonese. Cantonese culture and language followed the Xi River valley from Guangdong and is still predominate in the eastern half of Guangxi today. Outside of this area there is a huge variety of ethnicities and language groups represented.

Guangxi is known for its ethno-linguistic diversity. In the capital of Nanning, for example, four dialect-languages are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin, Cantonese, Pinghua, and Zhuang.